Copyright © 2018-2020 Spectrum Monkey |  monkey@spectrummonkey.com



 BLOG ZONE
¡EMPECEMOS!
 02 AUG 2018 | WELCOME | POST #1
 1 MIN | by Spectrum Monkey

Welcome to the Spectrum Monkey Blog Zone. Let's begin our journey!

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PROGRESS UPDATE
 06 AUG 2018 | SITE UPDATE | POST #2
 2 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

A short progress report of site development to date.

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LEARN YOUR ABCs
 08 AUG 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #3
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Pronunciation - Let's not run before we can "talk".

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ACCENTS AND ACCENTS
 14 AUG 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #4
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Following on from our ABCs. Why accents are important, both kinds!

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ADJECTIVES QUIZ
 17 AUG 2018 | LEARNING TOOL | POST #5
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How to get the most from the Adjectives Quiz.

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DECONSTRUCTING 10
SPANISH PHRASES

 23 AUG 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #6
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Let's looks at 10 simple Spanish phrases and really understand their sentence construction.

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NUMBERS, TIMES, DATES & GENDER AGREEMENT


 28 AUG 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #7
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Exploring different types of numbers in Spanish and how they are affected by gender agreement.

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As we touched upon in the last post: in the Spanish language, nouns have a grammatical gender. This means things can be either masculine or feminine. Typically adjectives must “agree” with the gender of the noun within the sentence. So, if we’re talking about a masculine noun, we must use the masculine form of the adjective. Equally if the noun is feminine, a feminine adjective must be used.

Numbers are no exception to this rule, and must also agree with the noun gender.

Luckily with Spanish numbers, gender agreement doesn’t add too much complexity to proceedings, as most numbers are in fact common in their form. Which means, the same form is used if masculine or feminine. There are a few exceptions to this though, but we will highlight and discuss them as we go.


Cardinal numbers from 0 to 20 | Los números cardinales de 0 a 20
The table below contains the names of first 21 cardinal numbers in Spanish. All forms are the same for both masculine and feminine unless otherwise highlighted.

0 - cero 7 - siete 14 - catorce
1 - uno 8 - ocho 15 - quince
2 - dos 9 - nueve 16 - dieciséis
3 - tres 10 - diez 17 - diecisiete
4 - cuatro 11 - once 18 - dieciocho
5 - cinco 12 - doce 19 - diecinueve
6 - sies 13 - trece 20 - veinte

Notice we have highlighted the number one, as this is our first example of gender agreement. The masculine form for the number one is as shown “uno”, but the feminine form is “una”.

In addition to this, when numbers ending in one (1, 21, 31, 41 etc but NOT 11) are placed directly before a masculine noun, then the “uno” part becomes “un”.

Examples are: “un hombre” (one man), “una mujer” (one woman), “sólo hay uno" (there's only one), "treinta y un euros" (thirty one euros)


Cardinal numbers from 21 to 100 | Los números cardinales de 21 a 100
Let's look at the remaining cardinal numbers in Spanish up to 100.

21 - veintiuno 28 - veintiocho 40 - cuarenta
22 - veintidós 29 - veintinueve 50 - cincuenta
23 - veintitrés 30 - treinta 60 - sesenta
24 - veinticuatro 31 - treinta y uno 70 - setenta
25 - veinticinco 32 - treinta y dos 80 - ochenta
26 - veintiséis 33 - treinta y tres 90 - noventa
27 - veintisiete 34 - treinta y cuatro 100 - cien

Again notice, we've highlighted the numbers ending in one as a reminder that they must agree with the noun they refer to.


Cardinal numbers from 101 and beyond | Los números cardinales de 101 y más allá
Finally, let's look at the remaining numbers in Spanish up to a billion.

101 - ciento y uno 300 - trescientos 800 - ochocientos
102 - ciento y dos 400 - cuatrocientos 900 - novecientos
103 - ciento y tres 500 - quinientos 1,000 - mil
200 - doscientos 600 - seiscientos Million - millón
201 - doscientos y uno 700 - setecientos Billion - mil millones

The Spanish word for "one hundred" is “cien”, but for the numbers between 101 and 199, the form of the hundred part changes to be “ciento”. This is gender common. So whilst numbers ending in one (except 111) are affected by gender, the “ciento” part is not.

That is to say: it does NOT become “cienta” when feminine.

For example: “ciento y un hombres” (101 men) and “ciento y una mujeres” (101 women).

In contrast to this, the numbers 200 to 900 do need gender agreement and thus change.

For example: “cuatrocientos hombres” (400 men) and “cuatrocientas mujeres” (400 women).

Look out for some irregular spelling, particularly with 500, 700 and 900.

In Spanish, the words for “one hundred” and “one thousand”, do not contain the word “one”. So you never write “un cien” or “un mil”, it’s just “cien” and “mil”.

The plural of “mil” is “miles”. However you CANNOT say “dos miles”, it is still “dos mil”. The only time you can use the plural form is when asking how many thousands, then you can ask “¿cuántos miles?”

The plural of “millón” is “millones”, and unlike “mil" the plural form is used in general.

For example: "un millón de euros" (one million euros) and "dos millones de euros" (two million euros).


Ordinal numbers | Los números ordenales
Ordinal numbers describe the order in which something occurs. For example: First, second, third etc... We can treat the ordinal numbers just like regular adjectives in Spanish, whereby they must both agree with gender and plurality.

  
first primero primera primeros primeras
second segundo segunda segundos segundas
third tercero tercera terceros terceras
forth cuarto cuarta cuartos cuartas
fifth quinto quinta quintos quintas
sixth sexto sexta sextos sextas
seventh séptimo séptima séptimos séptimas
eighth octavo octava octavos octavas
nineth noveno novena novenos novenas
tenth décimo décima décimos décimas

In addition to the above forms. First and third have a shortened form “primer” and “tercer” respectively. These may be used in front of word as a masculine singular form. For example: “tercer premio” (third prize).

In English the ordinal numbers can be abbreviated to be 1st, 2nd, 3rd etc… In Spanish we can do similar, but the abbreviation takes on the form of both gender and plurality. Thus: 1.o = primero, 1.a = primera, 1.os = primeros, 1.as = primeras, 1.er = primer, 2.o = segundo and so on...


What time is it? | Qué hora es?

If we remember back to the last post. We discovered that in Spanish, we don’t literally ask the time, we ask the hour. As the hour (la hora) has a feminine gender, when we tell the time we make our numbers agree with this fact.

The easiest way to demonstrate this is with some examples:

Spanish Meaning Literal translation
“es la una” it's one (o'clock) it's the one
“son las dos” it's two (o'clock) they are the two
“son las cinco y media” it's half past five they are the five and half

Hopefully the above examples help to illustrate that “1 o'clock”, “2 o'clock”, “5 o'clock” etc, in Spanish are expressed as “la una”, “las dos”, “las cinco” and so on.

In Spanish, to express the concept of “o’clock”. We are literally saying “the”, in feminine form, followed by the number (also feminine). Combined, they imply that we are talking about the hour, even though it’s never said.

The following are some more examples of expressing the time:

Spanish Meaning Literal translation
“son las siete en punto” it's seven o'clock they are the seven on point
“son las once menos cuarto” it's a quarter to eleven they are the eleven less a quarter
“son las tres menos cinco” it's five to three they are the three less five
“es mediodía” it's noon (midday) it is middle day
“es medianoche” it's midnight it is middle night

Notice above, we use the construction “en punto” (on point) to mean “o’clock”. Although a nice way to think of it is, as the English expression “on the dot!”.

Also notice in the above examples, midnight is feminine, yet midday is masculine. So we can see, not everything to do with the time is feminine. In fact, only the hour, the morning, the afternoon and the night are deemed feminine. Whilst the minutes, the seconds and the day itself are masculine.

For example: “He won the race in one hour, one minute and one second” could be said as “ganó la carrera en una hora, un minuto y un segundo”. Here we can see the word “one” appears three times, once in feminine form and twice as masculine.


Dates and Numbers | Fechas y Números
Numbers in the form of dates are expressed in Spanish a little differently to English.

In English we use ordinal numbers from 1st to 31st to express the days of the month. In Spanish we don't use ordinal numbers, so a date like May 6th is written as “6 de mayo” and not “6.o de mayo”.

Thus, if you are asked what day of the month it is, you would reply: “el seis” and not “el sexto”. Remember: Days are masculine.

In English we tend to say the year irregularly. Examples are: “Twenty-eighteen" for 2018, “Nineteen eighty-four” for 1984 and even "Nineteen hundred” for 1900.

However, if you described years irregualrly in Spanish, you would probably not be understood. In Spanish the years must be expressed as full numbers. So, 1984 literally must be: “One thousand nine hundred and eighty-four” or “Mil novecientos ochenta y cuatro”.


Commas, decimal points and money | Comas, puntos y dinero.
In English we use commas to separate groups of 3 numbers starting at one thousand (1,000). We also use a full-stop (period or dot) also known as a decimal point before the fractional part of numbers.

In Spanish, these are reversed. Commas represent the decimal point, and full-stops separate groups of 3 numbers.

Representing values of money is a great example of this. In English we might write £1,999.95 or $1,000,000.00. Whereas in Spanish, you would write 1.999,95€ or 1.000.000,00€.

Today, the Euro € is the official currency of Spain. Notice from the above example, the € sign is appended to the end of the value, whereas in English, the £ or $ sign precedes the value.

When describing fractional amounts of money, we also notice some differences. For example in English, we might say “four pounds and ten pence” or “eight dollars and fifty cents”. In Spanish, we use the word “with” instead of “and” before the fractional part. So literally, “five euros with twenty cents” or “cinco euros con veinte centimos”, which can be shortened to “cinco con veinte”.


Final thoughts | Pensamientos finales
Arguably, numbers are some of the most important words any newcomer to Spanish should learn as soon as possible. Each word can simply be learnt as a piece of vocabulary. This said, take the time to fully understand gender agreement within the context of numbers as this concept extends to all areas of the Spanish language.

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DAYS AND MONTHS CONTINUED
 30 AUG 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #8
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Continuing on from the previous post. Let's expand our vocabulary beyond just numbers.

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ASKING QUESTIONS
 05 SEP 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #9
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Examining how questions are formed in Spanish, using statement phrases and question words.

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SALUTATIONS
 14 SEP 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #10
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Exploring common ways to say Hello and Goodbye in various situation.

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ADVERBS
 24 SEP 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #11
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Introducing more concepts of Spanish grammar.

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THE RAIN IN SPAIN STAYS MAINLY ON THE PLANE
 27 SEP 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #12
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

¡El tiempo! - Looking at different ways to describe the weather.

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5 SPANISH WORDS THAT DON'T EXIST IN ENGLISH
 3 OCT 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #13
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Let’s look at five different words that have no direct English translation and see what we can learn.

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NOUNS
 10 OCT 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #14
 12 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

A beginner's guide to nouns, and why we have gender agreement.

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ARTICLES
 15 OCT 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #15
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Following our recent lesson on Nouns. Let's explore the articles that accompany them.

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ANTONYMS: BECAUSE OPPOSITES ATTRACT!
 17 OCT 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #16
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Learning words with their opposites in pairs.

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AN INTRODUCTION TO VERBS
 30 OCT 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #17
 12 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Scratching the surface of "doing" words.

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VERB PARADIGMS AND PATTERNS
 08 NOV 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #18
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Continuing to explore verb forms. Learning by patterns.

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DIMINUTIVES
 13 NOV 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #19
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Words that are not only reserved for small cute things.

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AY, HAY, AHÍ OR ALLÍ?
 19 NOV 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #20
 4 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Demystifying some common words that are phonetically similar.

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MORE PAST TENSES AND AUXILIARY VERBS
 29 NOV 2018 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #21
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Learning more verb tenses, and how to use the auxiliary verb haber.

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MOODS AND MORE SIMPLE FORM VERB TENSES
 10 DEC 2018 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #22
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Expressing commands, ideas, feelings and opinions with the subjunctive and imperative tenses.

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¡FELIZ NAVIDAD A TODOS!
 17 DEC 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #23
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Seasons greetings! A festive look at some Spanish Christmas phrases.

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YET MORE SIMPLE FORM VERB TENSES
 30 DEC 2018 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #24
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Finishing our look at simple form verb tenses: The conditional and imperfect subjunctive.

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IRREGULAR VERBS
 10 JAN 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #25
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Let's talk about verbs that don't follow the rules.

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SPANISH OMELETTE | TORTILLA DE PATATAS
 15 JAN 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #26
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Indulging our inner foodie with this Spanish classic.

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5 CANARIAN WORDS
 19 JAN 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #27
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Five interesting yet completely different Spanish words that originate from the Canary Islands.

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AN INTRODUCTION TO PRONOUNS
 22 JAN 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #28
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Taking our first look at one of the most fiddly aspects of Spanish grammar.

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VERB CONJUGATION TOOL
 24 JAN 2019 | LEARNING TOOL | POST #29
 1 MIN | by Spectrum Monkey

Introducing the Spectrum Monkey verb conjugation tool.

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¿SER O ESTAR?
 31 JAN 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #30
 12 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

“To be, or not to be, what is the difference?”

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NI
 08 FEB 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #31
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Exploring a tiny little word that deserves a proper explanation.

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EL DÍA DE SAN VALENTÍN
 12 FEB 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #32
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Dissecting six “romantic” phrases in time for St. Valentine’s Day.

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RELATIVE PRONOUNS
 19 FEB 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #33
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Continuing our look at fiddly Spanish grammar with relative pronouns.

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CONJUNCTIONS
 26 FEB 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #34
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

A brief look at linking words with some interesting alternative forms.

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SPANISH FITNESS AND EXERCISE CLASSES
 07 MAR 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #35
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How keeping fit in groups can improve our Spanish.

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OBJECT PRONOUNS
 14 MAR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #36
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Furthering our look at Spanish pronouns with direct and indirect object pronouns.

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REFLEXIVE VERBS
 20 MAR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #37
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Actions where we act upon ourselves

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¿POR O PARA?
 26 MAR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #38
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Explaining two easily confused prepositions.

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YA
 30 MAR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #39
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

A word every newcomer should know "already".

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O SEA
 03 APR 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #40
 2 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

An expression not only reserved for young people.

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THE FUTURE SUBJUNCTIVE TENSE
 05 APR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #41
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Ideas for the future that have been left in the past.

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THE PERSONAL “A”
 09 APR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #42
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Explaining a very Spanish preposition.

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COMPOUND VERB TENSES
 18 APR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #43
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Describing actions completed and on-going.

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THE PASSIVE VOICE
 26 APR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #44
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Focusing on the action rather than the subject.

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NEGATIVES
 29 APR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #45
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Learning how to form negative sentences.

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SPANISH CAFÉ CULTURE
 09 MAY 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #46
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Beyond just ordering a coffee.

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¿ESTE O ESTO?
 12 MAY 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #47
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Is it really this one?

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“ACABAR DE...”
 21 MAY 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #48
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How to express having just done something.

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FILLER WORDS | MULETILLAS
 25 MAY 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #49
 9 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Muletillas: words that offer us a little support through conversations.

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“AL + INFINITIVE” CONSTRUCTIONS
 05 JUN 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #50
 4 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

An alternative way to describe when things are occurring.

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HABER
 13 JUN 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #51
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Expressing existence.

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FALSE FRIENDS
 23 JUN 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #52
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Words that aren't what they seem.

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5 TIPS THAT WILL IMPROVE YOUR SPANISH
 01 JUL 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #53
 9 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Some simple tips that will help us remain on the right path.

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ADJECTIVES: PART 1
 10 JUL 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #54
 12 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Taking a closer look at describing words.

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ADJECTIVES: PART 2
 18 JUL 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #55
 17 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Continuing our look at describing words.

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DO YOU LIKE IT OR DOES IT PLEASE YOU?
 23 JUL 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #56
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Demystifying so-called back to front verbs.

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SORRY / FORGIVE ME / EXCUSE ME
 26 JUL 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #57
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Looking at different ways to apologise in Spanish.

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WHEN TO USE ARTICLES
 10 AUG 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #58
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Mastering when to include or omit articles in Spanish.

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“POR LO…” EXPRESSIONS
 11 AUG 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #59
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Dissecting six useful constructions that use por and lo.

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5 IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS USING DAR
 22 AUG 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #60
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Continuing our look at some more idiomatic expressions.

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WHAT
 26 AUG 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #61
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Distinguishing between the different ways to express what in Spanish.

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WHEN TO USE THE PERFECT TENSE
 03 SEP 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #62
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Describing recently completed actions.

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SWEARING IN SPANISH
 07 SEP 2019 | BEGINNER | NSFW | POST #63
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How to curse using a few choice Spanish words.

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COGNATES
 14 SEP 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #64
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Words that are the same or similar in both English and Spanish.

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THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE
 25 SEP 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #65
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Describing on-going actions that are happening right now.

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VERBS OF CHANGE
 07 OCT 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #66
 12 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Looking at different ways to express becoming.

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5 WAYS TO USE “ACUERDO”
 15 OCT 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #67
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Exploring different ways to use an essential word based around agreement.

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DECONSTRUCTING 5
SPANISH PROVERBS

 18 OCT 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #68
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Comparing a few wise words across both English and Spanish.

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PORQUE, POR QUÉ, PORQUÉ O POR QUE
 25 OCT 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #69
 6 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Four similar constructions with somewhat different meanings.

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WHEN SÍ DOESN'T MEAN YES
 05 NOV 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #70
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Explaining a meaning of sí that can go unnoticed by “itself”

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5 DIFFERENT WAYS TO EXPRESS “LET'S”
 13 NOV 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #71
 6 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Allowing ourselves and making suggestions.

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“A PARTIR DE”
 22 NOV 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #72
 4 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Beginning to expand our knowledge of idiomatic phrases.

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“ECHAR DE MENOS”
 30 NOV 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #73
 4 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How to say "I miss you" in Spanish.

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“MUY, PERO QUE MUY”
 11 DEC 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #74
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Emphasising and intensifying a statement.

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“PERO BUENO”
 18 DEC 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #75
 2 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Expressing incredulity, surprise and acceptance.

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PREPOSITIONS
 26 DEC 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #76
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How people or things relate to others.

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ARROBA
 29 DEC 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #77
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Using @ (the at symbol).

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QUEDAR
 09 JAN 2020 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #78
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Expanding our knowledge of this essential Spanish verb.

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TENER QUE / HABER DE
 13 JAN 2020 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #79
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Alternative ways of expressing obligation or need.

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SPANISH IDIOMS AND PROVERBS
 25 JAN 2020 | BEGINNER | POST #80
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Learning a few catchy phrases that are almost identical across both English and Spanish.

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“ME DA” + NOUN VS
“ME PONE” + ADJECTIVE

 30 JAN 2020 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #81
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Two different constructions that help us describe how we feel.

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3 SPANISH NOUNS WITH AMBIGUOUS GENDER
 12 FEB 2020 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #82
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Nouns that can be both male and female.

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5 SIMPLE PHRASES STARTING WITH "EN..."
 19 FEB 2020 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #83
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Expanding our knowledge with these useful phrases.

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¿TRANQUILO O TRANQUILA?"
 20 FEB 2020 | BEGINNER | POST #84
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Two commonly used interjections that offer reassurance.

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