Copyright © 2018-2020 Spectrum Monkey |  monkey@spectrummonkey.com



 BLOG ZONE
¡EMPECEMOS!
 02 AUG 2018 | WELCOME | POST #1
 1 MIN | by Spectrum Monkey

Welcome to the Spectrum Monkey Blog Zone. Let's begin our journey!

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
PROGRESS UPDATE
 06 AUG 2018 | SITE UPDATE | POST #2
 2 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

A short progress report of site development to date.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
LEARN YOUR ABCs
 08 AUG 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #3
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Pronunciation - Let's not run before we can "talk".

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
ACCENTS AND ACCENTS
 14 AUG 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #4
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Following on from our ABCs. Why accents are important, both kinds!

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
ADJECTIVES QUIZ
 17 AUG 2018 | LEARNING TOOL | POST #5
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How to get the most from the Adjectives Quiz.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
DECONSTRUCTING 10
SPANISH PHRASES

 23 AUG 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #6
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Let's looks at 10 simple Spanish phrases and really understand their sentence construction.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
NUMBERS, TIMES, DATES & GENDER AGREEMENT
 28 AUG 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #7
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Exploring different types of numbers in Spanish and how they are affected by gender agreement.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
DAYS AND MONTHS CONTINUED
 30 AUG 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #8
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Continuing on from the previous post. Let's expand our vocabulary beyond just numbers.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
ASKING QUESTIONS
 05 SEP 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #9
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Examining how questions are formed in Spanish, using statement phrases and question words.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
SALUTATIONS
 14 SEP 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #10
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Exploring common ways to say Hello and Goodbye in various situation.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
ADVERBS
 24 SEP 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #11
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Introducing more concepts of Spanish grammar.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
THE RAIN IN SPAIN STAYS MAINLY ON THE PLANE
 27 SEP 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #12
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

¡El tiempo! - Looking at different ways to describe the weather.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
5 SPANISH WORDS THAT DON'T EXIST IN ENGLISH
 3 OCT 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #13
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Let’s look at five different words that have no direct English translation and see what we can learn.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
NOUNS
 10 OCT 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #14
 12 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

A beginner's guide to nouns, and why we have gender agreement.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
ARTICLES
 15 OCT 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #15
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Following our recent lesson on Nouns. Let's explore the articles that accompany them.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
ANTONYMS: BECAUSE OPPOSITES ATTRACT!
 17 OCT 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #16
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Learning words with their opposites in pairs.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 

AN INTRODUCTION TO VERBS


 30 OCT 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #17
 12 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Scratching the surface of "doing" words.

READ MORE 

As ever, before we launch ourselves further into a complex subject, let’s see how Wikipedia defines a verb:

A verb is a word that conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

In the usual description of English, the basic form, with or without the particle "to", is the infinitive.

In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice. A verb may also agree with the person, gender or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject, or object.

Verbs have tenses: present, to indicate that an action is being carried out; past, to indicate that an action has been done; future, to indicate that an action will be done.

Whilst being an excellent definition, it covers rather a lot of ground. We’re only going to deal with a few aspects of this today.

Remember: A verb is a “doing” or “action” word.
The following sentences show some verb examples (underlined) in different forms:

English Spanish
I speak Spanish Hablo español
David is here David está aquí
Give me a break Dame un respire
She arrived late Ella llegó tarde
I want to learn Spanish Quiero aprender español

Infinitives
The infinitive forms of verbs are called so because: like infinity itself, they are not limited to nor bound by the concept of time.

In English, infinitives are preceded by the particle word ”to”. For example: "to be", "to eat", "to arrive", "to speak" etc…

In Spanish, infinitives end in -ar, -er or -ir.

Spanish English
estar to be
hablar to speak
comer to eat
creer to believe
escribir to write
dormir to sleep

Conjugations
Conjugated verbs are also known as the finite form. They are finite because unlike the infinitive forms, they are anchored in time (the tense) and by agreement. That is to say: the form changes depending on the tense and the subject (person) we are describing.

The following table gives us some examples of the verb "to speak" in various forms:

English Spanish Form
I want to speak Spanish quiero hablar español infinitive
I spoke Spanish today hablé español hoy conjugated past tense referring to oneself
I speak some Spanish hablo algo de español conjugated present tense referring to oneself
I will speak Spanish soon hablaré español pronto conjugated future tense referring to oneself

In Spanish, there are a huge number of conjugations per verb. This is very different to English, where typically there are only a few.

Because of the vast number of conjugations found within the Spanish language, traditionally these are learnt in patterns (paradigms).

We tend to learn Spanish verb paradigms categorised into tenses (periods in time and mood). Each tense will contain six different conjugations that must agree with the subject. Let’s see an example of this, and look at hablar (to speak) in the present tense:

Singular Plural
1st Person (I or us) hablo hablamos
2nd Person (you or you all) hablas habláis
3rd Person (he/she/it or they) habla hablan

Here are the same six conjugations in a very basic sentence construction, so that we can understand their meaning based on this pattern:

Spanish Meaning
hablo español I speak Spanish
hablas español You speak Spanish
habla español He/she/it speaks Spanish
hablamos español We speak Spanish
habláis español You all speak Spanish
hablan español They speak Spanish

Notice that the English verb “to speak” in this tense, only conjugates into two different forms: “speak” and “speaks”; whereas in the Spanish, all six conjugations are completely different to each other.

Also notice that in the Spanish, we don’t need any subject pronouns (I, you, she, we etc...) This is because in Spanish, the six conjugations within the paradigm will tend to be unique, therefore making the subject “built-in” to the conjugation.

For every tense within Spanish we must learn six new conjugations per verb, following this paradigm of: I, you, (he/she/it), us, (you all) and they.

If this is already starting to feel complicated, don’t worry, because it is.

The Spanish language has a lot more verb tenses than English. We will not make an attempt to learn them all today, but simply make ourselves aware they exist. Thus, we will leave verb conjugation and tenses here for the time being, as this is a vast topic, and something we will need to cover in more detail later on.

Participles
Beyond learning six conjugations per verb tense. There are two other special verb forms we will introduce today. These are the past participle and present participle (also know as the gerund).

Participles do not follow the same paradigm of six forms per tense. In fact there is only one form of each per verb.

Let’s see some examples of the past participle and the gerund, so we can start to understand how they are formed.

Verb Past participle Gerund
hablar (to speak) hablado (spoken) hablando (speaking)
cantar (to sing) cantado (sung) cantando (singing)
dar (to give) dado (given) dando (giving)
tener (to have) tenido (had) teniendo (having)
correr (to run) corrido (run) corriendo (running)
aprender (to learn) aprendido (learned) aprendiendo (learning)
decidir (to decide) decidido (decided) decidiendo (deciding)
subir (to go up) subido (gone up) subiendo (going up)
vivir (to live) vivido (lived) viviendo (living)

We have already seen that we can categorise our infinitives into three groups. Verbs ending in -ar, -er and -ir.

If we remove these endings from the infinitive, we are left with what we call the stem.

If an infinitive ends in -ar, then we can form a past participle by appending -ado to the stem.

Equally we can form the gerund of an -ar verb by appending -ando to its stem.

If an infinitive ends in -er or -ir, a past participle is formed by appending -ido to the stem.

A gerund is form by appending -iendo to an -er or -ir verb stem.

These are some simple but very useful rules that will give us a great chance of working out the past participle and gerund from the infinitive. Any verb that follows these rules is considered to have "regular" participles.

Of course, like most things, there are always expections. Sadly, some verbs break these rules and thus have "irregular" participles. They might have changes in spelling to the stem, or end differently. These must be learned seperately as new vocabulary. We will look at these another time.

Conclusion | En conclusión
Verbs are by far the largest grammatical concept to cover within the Spanish language. Today, we’ve only just scratched the surface. We are yet to talk about, auxiliary verbs, pronouns, several tenses that simply do not exist in English and so much more!

Do not worry if already it feels somewhat overwhelming. We are not attempting to learn everything today, but just to make ourselves aware of some basic concepts and to prepare ourselves for a lot more vocabulary to come.

It is true that Spanish verbs are extremely complicated in comparison to English. The sheer number of tenses that exist in the Spanish language, if nothing else, can make learning and remembering verbs extremely challenging.

But as we will see next time, there are patterns within the paradigms, that can be learnt. These will become more obvious over time, as we introduce more tenses and start to spot these patterns forming between the different verbs.

CLOSE 
VERB PARADIGMS AND PATTERNS
 08 NOV 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #18
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Continuing to explore verb forms. Learning by patterns.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
DIMINUTIVES
 13 NOV 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #19
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Words that are not only reserved for small cute things.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
AY, HAY, AHÍ OR ALLÍ?
 19 NOV 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #20
 4 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Demystifying some common words that are phonetically similar.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
MORE PAST TENSES AND AUXILIARY VERBS
 29 NOV 2018 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #21
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Learning more verb tenses, and how to use the auxiliary verb haber.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
MOODS AND MORE SIMPLE FORM VERB TENSES
 10 DEC 2018 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #22
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Expressing commands, ideas, feelings and opinions with the subjunctive and imperative tenses.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
¡FELIZ NAVIDAD A TODOS!
 17 DEC 2018 | BEGINNER | POST #23
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Seasons greetings! A festive look at some Spanish Christmas phrases.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
YET MORE SIMPLE FORM VERB TENSES
 30 DEC 2018 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #24
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Finishing our look at simple form verb tenses: The conditional and imperfect subjunctive.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
IRREGULAR VERBS
 10 JAN 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #25
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Let's talk about verbs that don't follow the rules.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
SPANISH OMELETTE | TORTILLA DE PATATAS
 15 JAN 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #26
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Indulging our inner foodie with this Spanish classic.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
5 CANARIAN WORDS
 19 JAN 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #27
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Five interesting yet completely different Spanish words that originate from the Canary Islands.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
AN INTRODUCTION TO PRONOUNS
 22 JAN 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #28
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Taking our first look at one of the most fiddly aspects of Spanish grammar.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
VERB CONJUGATION TOOL
 24 JAN 2019 | LEARNING TOOL | POST #29
 1 MIN | by Spectrum Monkey

Introducing the Spectrum Monkey verb conjugation tool.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
¿SER O ESTAR?
 31 JAN 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #30
 12 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

“To be, or not to be, what is the difference?”

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
NI
 08 FEB 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #31
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Exploring a tiny little word that deserves a proper explanation.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
EL DÍA DE SAN VALENTÍN
 12 FEB 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #32
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Dissecting six “romantic” phrases in time for St. Valentine’s Day.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
 19 FEB 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #33
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Continuing our look at fiddly Spanish grammar with relative pronouns.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
CONJUNCTIONS
 26 FEB 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #34
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

A brief look at linking words with some interesting alternative forms.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
SPANISH FITNESS AND EXERCISE CLASSES
 07 MAR 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #35
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How keeping fit in groups can improve our Spanish.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
OBJECT PRONOUNS
 14 MAR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #36
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Furthering our look at Spanish pronouns with direct and indirect object pronouns.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
REFLEXIVE VERBS
 20 MAR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #37
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Actions where we act upon ourselves

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
¿POR O PARA?
 26 MAR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #38
 15 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Explaining two easily confused prepositions.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
YA
 30 MAR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #39
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

A word every newcomer should know "already".

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
O SEA
 03 APR 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #40
 2 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

An expression not only reserved for young people.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
THE FUTURE SUBJUNCTIVE TENSE
 05 APR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #41
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Ideas for the future that have been left in the past.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
THE PERSONAL “A”
 09 APR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #42
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Explaining a very Spanish preposition.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
COMPOUND VERB TENSES
 18 APR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #43
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Describing actions completed and on-going.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
THE PASSIVE VOICE
 26 APR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #44
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Focusing on the action rather than the subject.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
NEGATIVES
 29 APR 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #45
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Learning how to form negative sentences.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
SPANISH CAFÉ CULTURE
 09 MAY 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #46
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Beyond just ordering a coffee.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
¿ESTE O ESTO?
 12 MAY 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #47
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Is it really this one?

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
“ACABAR DE...”
 21 MAY 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #48
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How to express having just done something.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
FILLER WORDS | MULETILLAS
 25 MAY 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #49
 9 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Muletillas: words that offer us a little support through conversations.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
“AL + INFINITIVE” CONSTRUCTIONS
 05 JUN 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #50
 4 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

An alternative way to describe when things are occurring.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
HABER
 13 JUN 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #51
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Expressing existence.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
FALSE FRIENDS
 23 JUN 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #52
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Words that aren't what they seem.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
5 TIPS THAT WILL IMPROVE YOUR SPANISH
 01 JUL 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #53
 9 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Some simple tips that will help us remain on the right path.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
ADJECTIVES: PART 1
 10 JUL 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #54
 12 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Taking a closer look at describing words.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
ADJECTIVES: PART 2
 18 JUL 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #55
 17 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Continuing our look at describing words.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
DO YOU LIKE IT OR DOES IT PLEASE YOU?
 23 JUL 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #56
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Demystifying so-called back to front verbs.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
SORRY / FORGIVE ME / EXCUSE ME
 26 JUL 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #57
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Looking at different ways to apologise in Spanish.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
WHEN TO USE ARTICLES
 10 AUG 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #58
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Mastering when to include or omit articles in Spanish.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
“POR LO…” EXPRESSIONS
 11 AUG 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #59
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Dissecting six useful constructions that use por and lo.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
5 IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS USING DAR
 22 AUG 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #60
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Continuing our look at some more idiomatic expressions.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
WHAT
 26 AUG 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #61
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Distinguishing between the different ways to express what in Spanish.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
WHEN TO USE THE PERFECT TENSE
 03 SEP 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #62
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Describing recently completed actions.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
SWEARING IN SPANISH
 07 SEP 2019 | BEGINNER | NSFW | POST #63
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How to curse using a few choice Spanish words.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
COGNATES
 14 SEP 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #64
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Words that are the same or similar in both English and Spanish.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE
 25 SEP 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #65
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Describing on-going actions that are happening right now.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
VERBS OF CHANGE
 07 OCT 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #66
 12 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Looking at different ways to express becoming.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
5 WAYS TO USE “ACUERDO”
 15 OCT 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #67
 10 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Exploring different ways to use an essential word based around agreement.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
DECONSTRUCTING 5
SPANISH PROVERBS

 18 OCT 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #68
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Comparing a few wise words across both English and Spanish.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
PORQUE, POR QUÉ, PORQUÉ O POR QUE
 25 OCT 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #69
 6 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Four similar constructions with somewhat different meanings.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
WHEN SÍ DOESN'T MEAN YES
 05 NOV 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #70
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Explaining a meaning of sí that can go unnoticed by “itself”

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
5 DIFFERENT WAYS TO EXPRESS “LET'S”
 13 NOV 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #71
 6 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Allowing ourselves and making suggestions.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
“A PARTIR DE”
 22 NOV 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #72
 4 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Beginning to expand our knowledge of idiomatic phrases.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
“ECHAR DE MENOS”
 30 NOV 2019 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #73
 4 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How to say "I miss you" in Spanish.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
“MUY, PERO QUE MUY”
 11 DEC 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #74
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Emphasising and intensifying a statement.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
“PERO BUENO”
 18 DEC 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #75
 2 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Expressing incredulity, surprise and acceptance.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
PREPOSITIONS
 26 DEC 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #76
 20 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

How people or things relate to others.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
ARROBA
 29 DEC 2019 | BEGINNER | POST #77
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Using @ (the at symbol).

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
QUEDAR
 09 JAN 2020 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #78
 8 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Expanding our knowledge of this essential Spanish verb.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
TENER QUE / HABER DE
 13 JAN 2020 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #79
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Alternative ways of expressing obligation or need.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
SPANISH IDIOMS AND PROVERBS
 25 JAN 2020 | BEGINNER | POST #80
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Learning a few catchy phrases that are almost identical across both English and Spanish.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
“ME DA” + NOUN VS
“ME PONE” + ADJECTIVE

 30 JAN 2020 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #81
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Two different constructions that help us describe how we feel.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
3 SPANISH NOUNS WITH AMBIGUOUS GENDER
 12 FEB 2020 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #82
 5 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Nouns that can be both male and female.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
5 SIMPLE PHRASES STARTING WITH "EN..."
 19 FEB 2020 | INTERMEDIATE | POST #83
 7 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Expanding our knowledge with these useful phrases.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 
¿TRANQUILO O TRANQUILA?"
 20 FEB 2020 | BEGINNER | POST #84
 3 MINS | by Spectrum Monkey

Two commonly used interjections that offer reassurance.

READ MORE 

CLOSE 